Chap 3 Course Companion StudyGuide: Part 2 (pp. 91-114)

Pg. 92-3: Types of Knowledge

d.) Check out Mohammed Youssef’s explanation of the 5 Stages of Knowledge / Wisdom in Arabic. Then provide a real life example of each, as it applies to your life.

Stages: /1. How hypocritical people are/ 2. How the nitrogen cycle works/ 3. How different parts of the brain can affect an individual/ 4. Reading my opponents strategical patterns in tennis matches/ 5. How to make packaged ramen

e.) Make your own list of an experiential knowledge (“knowing through direct experience”) you have, a procedural knowledge (skills; “knowing how”) and a knowledge claim (“knowing that”- tied to language). 

Knowing through direct experience…

-Knowing my friends

-Knowing Kailua really well

-Knowing how to properly speak to adults

-Knowing how far you can go with humor without hurting someone

-Knowing what makes me happy
Knowing how…

-Knowing how to play tennis

-Knowing how to solve a math problem

-Knowing how to write an essay

-Knowing how to use a spray can

-Knowing how to ride a bike

Knowing that…

-On November 6th, 2012 Obama was re-elected as president

-My phone number is….

-If I let go of a pen, it will fall

-People can’t live forever

What type is the easiest to learn? What type tends to stick the longest?

I think that ‘knowing that’ is probably the easiest of the three categories to learn. The type that sticks in my memory the longest is ‘knowing how.’ If I wasn’t to ride a bike for 30 years and then was forced to ride a bike, I would be perfectly fine. These kinds of experiences stick with you for the rest of your life.
f.) Which ways of knowing (sense perception, language, emotion, and reasoning) are most relevant to each of the 3 categories – try to provide a specific example.

Sense perception and emotion are definitely most relevant to ‘knowing through direct experience.’ For example, if you lie to your mom and she finds out about it. You will use yoiur sense perception to tell how disappointed/mad she was. There is always an emotion that you feel; one that you feel while she scolded you for not telling the truth or the emotion you feel when your lying. Knowing how to speak a language is in the ‘knowing how’ category. For example, the transition of language from kindergarten to 3rd grade aged students. In kindergarten you are able to say what you like and what you don’t, what you want and what you don’t want. In 3rd grade you are able to state your opinion on things and are able to somewhat keep a conversation with an adult. Reasoning is also in this category. For example, when your solving a math problem. Reasoning comes into play, you have to figure out how to solve the problem with the information the problem has given you. Unfortunately, none of these words are relevant to the ‘knowing that’ category.

i.) The 3 kinds of knowledge are stored differently in the brain. Remember how Mr. Wearing could still play the piano? Curate something on one of the following types of memory or at least find out what they all are:procedural memory, working memory, long-term memory, declarative memory, and episodic memory.

Long term memory is when a person is able to recall memory from their childhood. They often remember things such as family members and places that they’ve been in their early life. I think a long term memory defines who an individual is. Without it, they would forget everything they had experienced that made them who they are.

Pg. 108-9: Justification Types

After reading about reliable sources (experts and general consensus), memories, emotions, intuition, faith, and revelation. Describe what role these might play in the Areas of Knowledge (your subjects)…for example, how might emotion affect an artist or intuition affect a scientist?

I think memories have a huge impact on an artist. Some moments in a person’s life can really impact them. And if that person is an artist they will definitely display this memory, that has left such a long lasting impression on them, in their art. I know I have!

Pg. 110-111: Intensity of Belief

Draw or diagram something that represents the relationship between belief, truth, knowledge, and justification.

Justification–> truth–> belief–> knowledge

Pg. 114: Do I Believe?

q.) After reading about the 3 “s’s”: SOURCE, STATEMENTS, and SELF, choose something you’ve learned recently and evaluate it based on these, using specific examples.

Learning the Nitrogen Cycle:

No the source doesn’t have any motive for deception, it has a reputation for being honest/accurate. The source is an expert on the topic. The source does acknowledge counter claims/limitations to own claims. The source is consistent with other sources. The context is not biased, it’s ‘voice’ is monotone and only states upfront facts, not opinionated ones. There are no background values/goals the writer/speaker stated and they are not observable in the context. The claims do use a graph and photos which are relevant to the topic. The images/graph serve as a visual aid. The claims are supported by evidence and are internally consistent, free from contradictions/logical errors. I do not recognize in my self an inclination in advance to believe or reject a particular source/statement. I apply critical thinking to what I want to believe/what I don’t want to believe. If I use my own past experience as a basis on which to judge the plausibility of new statements it probably won’t be too reliable. It is possible to separate my beliefs into private beliefs and public beliefs. Sometimes it is inappropriate to say your private beliefs because they are offensive or not quite understood by the majority of the public. I don’t think you should ever say, “should I believe it.” You should be questioning your self “do you believe it.” “Should you” sounds like your being influenced by your peers, yourself, or some outside force to believe something. You should only truly believe something that YOU, yourself believes. I think there is an ethical dimension to what one should believe or reject. Experiences in our childhood to teenage years help us see that basic dimension on what things are possible and what aren’t. And I think the dimension becomes much more complex as a person goes into adult hood. When they are presented with much more of a diversity of situations and knowledge.

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